Types of Drinking Water Purifiers

Water treatment can be achieved using a wide variety of devices, from plastic pitcher filters and built-in refrigerator filters to faucet mounts and whole-house filters. Methods can include ion exchange to remove fluoride (which is often added to drinking water) and sediment filtration.


Unless you live in an area with regulated public water, it’s important to understand how to protect yourself against potentially harmful contaminants.

Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis uses a semi-permeable membrane to filter out large molecules and particles from water. It also removes toxins and microorganisms from your drinking water. The process is effective in removing many types of contaminants, including sodium, chlorine, and other chemicals. It is a great choice for those who want to enjoy the best tasting water possible.

Reverse Osmosis filtration systems separate a concentrated aqueous solution from freshwater by applying pressure to the solution on one side of a selective membrane. The aqueous solution passes through the membrane to the freshwater side, and a waste stream is disposed of on the other. This process also helps to decompose organic molecules.

A reverse osmosis system typically has multiple stages of filtration. The first stage, for example, is a sediment filter that removes large contaminants like dirt and rust from the water. It also prevents clogs in the subsequent filters. The next stage is a pre-carbon block that binds and attracts positively charged ions to reduce chemical compounds in the water. The third is a reverse osmosis membrane that removes molecules larger than water, such as sodium, chloride, and heavy metals like lead. The final stage is a post-carbon filter that polishes the water.

Reverse Osmosis systems can significantly reduce the amount of minerals in the water, which can have negative effects on your health. To counter this, our pick from iSpring includes a remineralizer that adds back important minerals to the water after the filtration process. This restores the taste of the filtered water and makes it healthy to drink.

Ultraviolet treatment

A UV water purifier uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. This method is much safer than chemical disinfectants and has the added benefit of eliminating harmful chlorine metabolites. However, it does not remove other contaminants such as heavy metals or chemicals. It is also not suitable for removing bad tastes or odors.

The UV radiation kills microorganisms by altering their DNA and preventing reproduction. A UV water purifier can be used as a standalone unit or as part of a treatment system. It is recommended that the device be located as close to the point of use as possible. This will prevent bacteria from accumulating in the plumbing system. UV treatment systems are often installed in homes with private wells.

UV treatment is a simple and cost-effective way to disinfect drinking water. A typical system consists of a quartz sleeve that encases a UV bulb along its center. The bulb is powered by electrical power and is surrounded by a protective glass cover. The bulb is placed in the center of a flow-control device to ensure proper contact with the water. Unlike other filtration methods, UV is able to destroy bacterial contamination in clear water. It is not effective on cloudy or murky water, and requires a prefilter to eliminate color, turbidity, and particles that shield microorganisms from UV radiation.

Sediment filter

A sediment filter is an essential component of any drinking water filtration system. It prevents large particles of rust, silt, and dirt from entering your home water supply. These particles can stain the interior of upcoming filters and inhibit their effectiveness. They are also responsible for water turbidity, which can cause unpleasant tastes in your water. They are available in both cartridges and bags and come in a range of sizes. Some are rated by micron size, while others use depth gradients to trap suspended particles.

Unlike carbon filters, which work by removing impurities through oxidation reactions, sediment filters remove contaminants like rust and dirt through a process called sedimentation. They also have a much larger surface area, so they can handle larger volumes of water. This makes them a good choice for people with well water.

Sediment filters are also a great complement to UV filters because they remove the turbidity that can reduce the effectiveness of a UV treatment. A good quality sediment filter will have a large surface area and a micron rating of five or higher, so it can catch all the dirt in your water.

A sediment filter is an inexpensive way to get better tasting water at home. It will pay for itself within a couple of uses, especially if you’re buying expensive bottled water in bulk. It may take a little experimentation to find the best type of sediment filter for your needs, but once you do, it will be easy to maintain.

Carbon filter

Carbon filters remove organic chemicals and odors from drinking water through the process of adsorption. They use activated carbon, which is heated under high temperatures to open up its pores and increase its surface area. When water comes in contact with the carbon, it is attracted to the particles and held there. The size of the pore determines the level of filtration, and how long water stays in contact with the carbon affects its performance. The most common type of carbon filter is granular activated carbon (GAC). Other devices use carbon that has been pressed into solid blocks, which are more restrictive and can reduce home water pressure.

Carbon adsorbs a wide variety of chemicals, including VOCs, pesticides, herbicides, and chlorine and its by-products. It can also remove chloramines, which are harder to break down than chlorine. Chloramines are created when chlorine reacts with ammonia in a water treatment plant, and they make water taste and smell bad.

However, carbon is not very effective at removing bacteria or cysts. Moreover, it doesn’t remove turbidity and other microbiological contaminants. Most carbon filters are not tested for these contaminants, so it’s important to know what you’re buying before you purchase one. Fortunately, there are some excellent carbon filters on the market that will remove these contaminants and others. One example is Hydros, which uses coconut shell carbon encased in BPA-free plastic and has a lifetime guarantee.

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